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Full text of "Food values; practical tables for use in private practice and public institutions"

FOOD VALUES 



FOOD VALUES 

PRACTICAL TABLES FOR USE IN PRIVATE 
PRACTICE AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS 



BY 



EDWIN A. LOCKE, A.M., M.D. 

INSTRUCTOR IN MEDICINE, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL 




NEW YORK AND LONDON 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

1918 



Copyright, 1911, by 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 



thi. 



1 



PRINTED AT THE APPLETON PRE88 
NEW YORK, U. -S. A.. , 



.*« '. ' ' •' • '.*• 



T.X551 
1916 



PREFACE 



The numerous tables of chemical analysis of foods 
and of food values appearing during recent years have 
made possible a more precise qualitative and quantita- 
tive regulation of the diet for the sick. Such tables, 
however, are not readily accessible, or are arranged in 
such form as to be applied to practical dietetics only 
with considerable difficulty. The majority necessitate 
the actual weighing of the foods and often tedious 
calculations in order to determine the exact nutritive 
values; procedures which greatly detract from their 
practical usefulness. Furthermore the figures given are 
usually for raw food values which frequently differ con- 
siderably from those of cooked foods. 

In the present volume I have attempted to bring to- 
gether from various sources as exact information as 
possible regarding the composition and nutritive value 
of all common foods in a form so simple that it can be 
readily applied to the every day regulation of diets. 
The work has been prepared especially for the students 
in the Harvard Medical School. 

It is obvious that many factors combine to make the 
calculations of the nutritive worth of cooked foods ex- 
ceedingly difficult and in many instances the results 
given must be regarded as only approximate. 

v 



392205 



PREFACE 

No original chemical analyses have been made by the 
author but all calculations are based on actual weighings. 
It is not a treatise on dietetics and no attempt has been 
made to give special diets for particular diseases or con- 
ditions. In the following pages, however, some of the 
principles of dietetics which apply especially to the use 
of the tables are briefly discussed. Our knowledge of 
the relative digestibility of different foods is so incom- 
plete that no discussion of the subject is given. 

It has been impossible to give credit in all cases to the 
authors consulted. Information has been drawn largely 
from the numerous reports of investigations made under 
the direction of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, especially those of Atwater, Bryant, Lang- 
worthy, Grindley, Wood and Milner. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made of the valuable 
advice and assistance given by Drs. H. F. Hewes and 
David L. Edsall in the preparation of these tables. 



CONTENTS 



PAGB 

Introduction 1 

Table I. — Equivalents of Weights and 

Measures 25 

Table II. — Prepared Foods — Edible Por- 
tion 26 

Table III. — Alcoholic Beverages ... 58 

Table IV. — Average Chemical Composition 

of American Foods 63 

Index 101 




FOOD VALUES 



INTRODUCTION 

CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD STUFFS 

The various food materials, although frequently clas- 
sified as organic or inorganic, are more reasonably 
divided into (1) nutritive and (2) non-nutritive con- 
stituents. The former are chiefly organic, the latter 
largely inorganic substances. 

Atwater and others group the nutritive constituents 
into four general classes, i. e. : (1) protein, (2) fats, (3) 
carbolujdrates, and (4) mineral matter or ash. The non- 
nutrient constituents include water, refuse (bones of 
meat and fish, shells of shell-fish, stones of fruit, skins 
of fruits and vegetables, etc.), and the salts of salted 
meats and fish. 

In the following tables the term ''edible portion' ' 
(Atwater) is used to include the nutritive portion and 
water, i. e., flesh of meat and fish, white and yolk of egg, 
pulp of fruit, etc., while the term "as purchased" in- 
dicates the total edible portion plus the refuse. 

Protein. — Protein as employed by Atwater is a com- 
prehensive term comprising all nitrogenous substances 
whether of animal or vegetable origin except the nitrog- 
enous fats. As distinguished from protein the proteids 
are definite chemical compounds such as the albumin of 
meat and the white of egg which form only a portion of 

1 



% FOOD VALUES 

the general group of proteins. Hoppe-Seyler and Drech- 
sel 1 classify the protein bodies as follows: (1) Simple 
Proteids (albumins, globulins, nucleoalbumins, albumi- 
nates, proteoses and peptones, coagulated proteids and 
histones), (2) Compound Proteids (hemoglobins, glu- 
coproteids and nucleoproteids), (3) Albumoids or Albu- 
minoids (keratins, elastin, collagen and reticulin). 

Carbohydrates. — The carbohydrates embrace an un- 
usually large number of compounds such as sugars, 
starch, gums and cellulose, and form the principal con- 
stituent of plants as do the proteids of meats. Though 
found chiefly in such foods as are derived from the vege- 
tables, nuts, fruits and grains, they are also present in 
small amounts in milk, meat, and fish. 

Fats. — This group is made to include the total ether 
extract of the dried substance, and comprises both plant 
and animal fat besides a variety of other substances, in- 
cluding neutral fat, fatty acids, lecithin, cholesterin, 
coloring matter, tannin, wax and ash residue. These 
last mentioned, however, are present in very minute 
traces and the heat of combustion of the total ether ex- 
tract has been shown to be practically identical with that 
of pure fat. (Stohmann. 2 ) 

Mineral Matter or Ash. — A considerable number of 
inorganic elements (chlorine, sulphur, phosphorus, so- 
dium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, potassium 
and others) are contained in the food, to a small extent 
as organic compounds, but principally as salts (carbo- 

1 Cited by Hammarsten, "A Text-Book of Physiological Chemis- 
try," p. 36. 

2 Quoted by Schwenkenbecher, Zeit. /. diet. u. physik. Terapie, Bd. 
4, 1900, s. 388. 



INTRODUCTION 3 

nates, sulphates, phosphates, oxides, etc.). They are 
never oxidized in the system to furnish heat or energy, 
but are essential in tissue building. 

Water. — The importance of water in the diet of man, 
though a non-nutrient, is attested by the fact that nearly 
two-thirds of the body weight is due to water. 



USES OF FOODS IN THE BODY 

In general the function of food ingested is twofold, 
first, to build up or repair tissues, and second, through 
combustion to furnish energy either as heat or muscular 
work including the work of digestion. The degree to which 
the various food ingredients discussed above answers in 
these respects to the body needs is various. Protein 
foods, like lean meat and fish, egg albumen, casein of 
milk, wheat gluten, and the proteid portion of vegetables, 
are essentially the tissue builders but under some condi- 
tions, especially when the amount of fats and carbohy- 
drates is insufficient, are utilized by the organism to pro- 
vide energy. It is probable also that proteids may be 
changed to fat. The fats, both animal and vegetable, 
and the carbohydrates, very largely furnish the energy 
required. To a considerable extent the fats of the food 
may be stored up as body fat but only when the ingested 
food is more than adequate to meet the demands of the 
body for tissue building and energy. Likewise when 
taken in excess the carbohydrates may be transformed 
into fat and stored as adipose tissue. Neither can go to 
the building up of tissue yet they act as proteid sparers 
and indirectly serve this purpose. 

It will thus be readily seen that the functions of the 



4 FOOD VALUES 

three kinds of nutrients in the body are to a certain ex- 
tent interchangeable, and the purpose which each serves 
will depend largely on the quantity of the other two. In 
other words the degree to which the three types of food 
stuffs participate in the production of energy will de- 
pend on their relative proportion in the diet as much as 
on any preference on the part of the organism. 

This fact is of the greatest importance in the regula- 
tion of the diet in certain diseases. Thus if we aim to 
increase the body weight in a given case it is as impor- 
tant to provide adequate amounts of fats and carbohy- 
drates in order to spare the proteids which would other- 
wise to some degree be used to answer the needs for heat 
and energy, as to increase the nitrogenous foods. 

As stated above, mineral matter does not contribute 
to the energy needs of the body yet is absolutely essen- 
tial in the food, first, because it forms bone and other 
tissues, and second, because of its influence on general 
metabolism. It is generally agreed that, with the excep- 
tion of sodium chloride, the average mixed diet com- 
prises more than a sufficient quantity of mineral matter 
to supply the body needs. 

It has been shown experimentally beyond a doubt, 
that alcohol in small quantities, like the fats and carbo- 
hydrates, is entirely oxidized in the body and the energy 
thus produced is utilized by the body largely as heat but 
also to some degree as muscular work. Alcohol must in 
consequence be considered with the foods. It differs 
from other foods in not being stored in the body as fat 
for future use. To some extent, at least, it undoubtedly 
acts in a manner analogous to the carbohydrates and fats 
in sparing the protein. The maximum action of this sort 



INTRODUCTION 5 

probably takes place in those habitually addicted to its 
use. There is considerable experimental evidence to in- 
dicate that alcohol likewise spares the carbohydrates and 
even the fats. Under no conditions can it serve to repair 
or build tissue. Unlike other foods, alcohol, when taken 
into the body in large amounts, not only acts as a food 
but as a drug also. This action often outweighs its 
effects as a nutrient. Any food may, when taken in ex- 
cess, act deleteriously, but these effects in the case of 
alcohol are proportionately greater because of its action 
as a drug. 1 

METHODS OF CALCULATING FOOD VALUES 

All foods possess potential or latent energy which with 
combustion becomes kinetic or actual. This holds true 
whether it is burned in a calorimeter or oxidized in the 
body. When oxidized in the body this energy appears 
both as heat and muscular power. Atwater has shown 
by calorimeter experiments that when the body is in a 
state of complete rest all the energy is represented by 
heat and the work of metabolism, whereas with activity 
a considerable portion appears as muscular work. In 
either case the total ' ' exactly equals the latent energy of 
the material burned in the body. ' ' This energy of foods 
is known as the heat or fuel value and is expressed in 
terms of a heat unit or calorie. A calorie is the amount 
of heat necessary to raise one kilogram of water from 0° 
to 1° C. or 1 pound 4° F. This is sometimes spoken of as 

1 For a full discussion of the action and nutritive value of alcohol, 
see Atwater, "Physiological Aspects of the Liquor Problem," vol. 
ii., 1903. 



6 FOOD VALUES 

the " large calorie, " the "small calorie" being 1/1000 of 
a large calorie, or the amount of heat necessary to raise 
one gram of water from 0° to 1° C. Stohmann * gives the 
following heat values for protein, fat and carbohydrate, 
when completely burned in the calorimeter: 

1 gram protein 5,711 small calories.. . . 5.7 large calories. 

1 " fat 9,365 " " .... 9.3 " 

1 " carbohydrate... 4,182 " " ....4.1 " 

Digestibility. — If completely oxidized and trans- 
formed in the body the same figures would hold for these 
ingredients ; but as is well known not all the food is util- 
ized in the body, the unused portion appearing in the 
excreta. In order therefore to obtain the exact heat 
value of a given food when ingested, it is necessary to 
know not only its calorimeter value, but also the energy 
value of that portion which has escaped oxidation and 
appears in the feces and urine, the difference obviously 
being the so-called ' ' available fuel value. ' ' Consequently 
it becomes of the first importance to determine what 
proportion of the food taken into the body is digested 
and absorbed, in other words, is available for body needs. 
This is designated as the "coefficient of digestibility." 
(Atwater.) It may be defined as the total energy value 
of a given food less that of the unoxidized excreta. 

The digestibility of nutrients differs slightly when 
given in a mixed diet from that of the same when in- 
gested separately. Atwater 's figures of digestibility 2 

1 "Ueber den Warmewerth der Bestantheile der Nahrungsmit- 
tel." Zeit.f. Biologie, Bd. 31. 

2 The term digestibility is used by Atwater to indicate the com- 
pleteness of digestion, and not the ease of digestion as ordinarily 
employed. 



INTRODUCTION 7 

for the average mixed diet are : protein 92 per cent, fats 
95 per cent, and carbohydrates 97 per cent, those of ani- 
mal origin being considerably higher than those of vege- 
table. Of the total food in a mixed diet 91 per cent is 
estimated to be entirely digested and transformed into 
energy. The coefficient of digestibility of alcohol is 98. 

Availability. — A further consideration of very great 
moment in the calculation of food values is the complete- 
ness with which the available protein, fat and carbohy- 
drate are burned in the body. Since the fats, carbohy- 
drates and alcohol are almost completely oxidized, their 
available energy is represented by constants which are 
very close to those for the same oxidized outside the 
body. Not only is there a considerable loss in the 
amount of proteid available for oxidation, as stated 
above, namely 8 per cent, but a considerable portion of 
the remainder escapes complete oxidation and appears 
in the form of the nitrogenous excreta in the urine (urea, 
etc.) Whereas the coefficient of digestibility of protein 
is 92, the coefficient of availability of energy is only 70. 
(Atwater.) The ultimate energy value developed by 
change and oxidation of foods in the organism is termed 
the ' ' physiological heat of combustion." 

From his own investigation and those of many others, 
Rubner x calculates this physiological calorie value as 
follows : 

1 gram protein 4.1 calories. 

1 " fat 9.3 

1 " carbohydrate 4.1 

1 " Calorimetrische Untersuchungen." Zeit. f. Biologie, N.F., Bd. 
3, 1885. 



s 



FOOD VALUES 



The physiological calorie value of alcohol is 7. More 
recently Atwater and Bryant 1 have revised these figures 
basing their conclusions on a large number of careful 
investigations. A summary of their results is given in 
the following table : 2 





Heat of 
com- 
bustion 

per 
gram. 


Coefficients of 
availability. 


Fuel values. 




Of ma- 
terial. 


Of 

energy. 


Referred to avail- 
able material. 


Referred to total 
material. 




Per grm. 


Per lb. 


Per grm. 


Per lb. 




Cal. 


Per 
cent. 


Per 
cent. 


Cal. 


Cal. 


Cal. 


Cal. 


Protein 

Fat 


5.65 
9.40 
4.10 
7.07 


92 
95 
97 

98 


70 
95 
97 

98 


4.4 

9.4 
4.1 
7.1 


2,000 
4,260 
1,860 
3,210 


4.0 
8.9 
4.0 
6.9 


1,815 
4,040 


Carbohydrates . 
Alcohol ....... 


1,818 
3,130 



It will be seen that Atwater 's figures corresponding to 
those of Rubner given above are: 

1 gram protein 4 calories. 

1 " fat 8.9 

1 " carbohydrate 4 

1 " alcohol 6.9 " 

While more accurate than Rubner 's figures, the latter 
have attained such general acceptance that practically 
all tables of food values available are based on these 
values and for the sake of uniformity it has seemed best 



1 "The Availability and Fuel Value of Food Materials." Report 
of the Storrs (Connecticut) Agricultural Station, 1889. 

8 "Physiological Aspects of the Liquor Problem," vol. ii., p. 281. 



INTRODUCTION 9 

to use the same in the preparation of the following 
tables. 



THE FOOD REQUIREMENTS OF THE BODY IN 
HEALTH 

In spite of numerous careful researches no precise 
general rules can be laid down regarding the food re- 
quirements which shall apply to all persons. The needs 
of the organism for nutriment both with relation to its 
kind and quality must depend on many factors. First 
of all it is evident that these needs bear a direct relation- 
ship to the size of the body, large individuals requiring 
more food than smaller ones. The average man in health 
and with moderate work is found to require roughly 40 
calories per kilogram of weight. The extent of body sur- 
face likewise determines to some degree the amount of 
fuel needed inasmuch as the radiation of heat is rela- 
tively greater in those with proportionately large skin 
surface. The thinner the individual, the greater the 
relative skin surface and hence the greater the demands 
for food. A partial explanation is found here for the 
fact that thin people frequently consume more food 
than the obese. Added reasons for this difference are 
found in the sedentary habits of life so often character- 
istic of the obese, and in the lessened metabolism. Fat 
tissue as well as bone is virtually dead tissue when com- 
pared with muscle since it participates but little in the 
general processes of waste and repair. Whereas the 
average man at work requires somewhere between 30 and 
60 calories per kilogram of weight to maintain health and 
strength, the very fat have been observed to preserve 
2 






10 FOOD VALUES 

their weight and vigor on from 26 to 36 calories per kilo 
of weight. 

Children have relatively more skin surface than 
adults, and the calls for food are correspondingly in- 
creased. Young cells furthermore oxidize a greater 
quantity of food. Still another important reason is that 
the young organism needs food for the growth of new 
tissue as well. 

An exactly opposite condition exists in the aged. 
There is lessened body activity, a diminished vitality in 
the body cells, and commonly a smaller degree of heat 
radiation. In consequence the food consumption is de- 
creased beyond the period of maximum vigor and in 
extreme old age surprisingly little is required to meet 
the demands of the organism. The young infant util- 
izes nearly 100 calories per kilogram, the aged scarcely 
more than one-quarter to one-third as much. 

It is estimated that on the average women take barely 
four-fifths as much food as men, due largely to the 
smaller size, the greater percentage of body fat, and the 
less active life. 

Climate and seasons exert some influence, though by 
reason of the methods of dress among civilized people, 
which protects the body from excessive loss of heat by 
radiation, far less than would at first be supposed. To 
some extent the demands of the system in cold climates 
increase the fuel needs of the body. 

Marked individual differences in the amount of food 
digested and assimilated, apart from such differences as 
are due to size, age, mode of life, shape of body, and 
similar factors, are commonly observed. Not only is this 
individual variation seen with reference to the amount 



INTRODUCTION 11 

of food required, but also in the proportions of the dif- 
ferent ingredients. In both health and disease, one like- 
wise frequently sees that a particular kind of food does 
not agree with a given individual. These individual 
peculiarities are important considerations in the regula- 
tion of the diet, especially in conditions of ill-health. 

The one factor of probably more importance than all 
the above combined is muscular work. Langworthy l 
summarizes the results of statistical and experimental 
studies with regard to the food requirements of man 
under varying conditions of work as follows: 

Man without muscular work 2,450 calories. 

" with light muscular work (sedentary) 2,700 " 

" " to moderate muscular work 3,050 " 

" moderate muscular work 3,400 " 

" " very hard muscular work 5,500 " 

In the case of Maine lumbermen working during the 
winter months the food consumed in a single day in 
some instances was found to be capable of yielding over 
8,000 calories. It seems to be generally agreed that a 
man at moderately hard work requires somewhat more 
than 3,000 calories daily. 

Atwater has shown by calorimeter experiments that in 
the case of the man performing work, as contrasted with 
the man at rest, only about 20 per cent of the additional 
food taken appears as the energy equivalent of work, 
that is, for every 20 calories developed and applied as 
work, 80 calories are lost in the body as heat and 
"internal work." 

1 United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment 
Station, Circular No. 46, 1906. 



12 FOOD VALUES 

While it is fairly generally conceded that the average 
man at work requires approximately 3,000 calories daily, 
there is a wide divergence of opinion as to the relative 
amounts of the protein, carbohydrates and fats best 
suited to furnish these needs. Unfortunately physiologi- 
cal experiments are frequently not in accord with the 
results of actual studies of the diet taken by individuals 
of different races and under varying conditions. While 
the question cannot at present be finally settled, the pro- 
portions of nutrients taken by the average person is 
probably the safest guard. These figures are, roughly, 
150 grams fat, 100 grams protein, and 350 grams carbo- 
hydrates per diem. 

The most important question is as to the quantity of 
protein best suited to the needs of the average indi- 
vidual. In spite of very numerous experiments by many 
eminent physiologists as well as careful studies regard- 
ing the amount consumed by various races and classes, 
it still remains an open question. The work of Chitten- 
den and others proves that health may be maintained 
under the ordinary conditions of life for a long period 
on a daily ingestion of proteids even as low as 50 grams 
daily. It has not been shown, however, that such a low 
proteid content is an advantage or if continued indefi- 
nitely may not work injuriously. A large excess of pro- 
tein taken with a diet rich in fats and carbohydrates, 
especially with hard muscular work, is, as a rule, well 
tolerated, observations having been made frequently 
where more than 200 grams of protein were taken daily 
and well tolerated. Without an ample supply of fats 
and carbohydrates, however, an excess of protein leads 
to severe digestive disturbances and must be regarded as 



INTRODUCTION 13 

distinctly harmful. The form in which the protein is 
ingested is also important. At least one-half should be 
in the form of vegetable protein except in the case of 
persons doing very severe work when a larger proportion 
of animal protein may be allowed. 

Granting that 100 grams of protein is a fair average 
for a diet yielding 3,000 calories, the proportion of the 
fats and carbohydrates best suited to the body needs is 
the next consideration. The ratio of these two ingredi- 
ents in the diet of different individuals varies within 
very wide limits as shown by many dietary studies. Al- 
though energy derived from the carbohydrates seems to 
spare the proteids to a slightly greater degree than that 
from the fats, they may for all practical purposes be 
considered of equal importance as proteid sparers. The 
vital question appears to be not as to the ratio of the 
two, but rather that the necessary caloric value of the 
diet be maintained. When additional food is required 
because of hard muscular work there is good reason for 
the opinion that the supplementary calories should be 
supplied largely by carbohydrates and fats. 

The influence of mental work on the fuel needs of the 
body has not been so accurately determined as in the 
case of muscular work. One important fact, however, 
has been established by the calorimeter experiments of 
Atwater, 1 namely that the body waste is not increased 
by brain activity. There seems to be no evidence for 
supposing that any particular kind of food is indicated 
in the case of brain workers, or that the calorific needs 
are greatly or even to any extent increased. Overeating 

1 United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment 
Station, Bulletin No. 44, 1897. 



14 FOOD VALUES 

is detrimental to hard brain work for the reason that 
under such conditions excessive work is put on the diges- 
tive organs necessitating an abundant blood supply to 
the abdominal organs which undoubtedly interferes to 
a considerable extent with the supply needed by the 
brain. Intellectual workers are usually of sedentary 
habits and require much less food in general and a smaller 
percentage of fats and carbohydrates than those doing 
manual labor. In a word, the food required by this class 
is relatively small and should be of such a nature as to 
put as little burden as possible on the digestive organs. 



THE BODY'S RESERVE 

It is one of nature's provisions that the body should 
to a considerable though varying degree act as a store- 
house of fuel. On a sufficient diet the body stores up in 
the form of fat tissue a greater or smaller reserve which 
during a period of insufficient food or actual starvation 
can for a remarkably long period sustain life. At first 
only adipose tissue is oxidized, but later even the nitrog- 
enous tissues may also be utilized. Death usually occurs 
after the reduction of from one-third to one-half the body 
weight. Underfeeding, especially an insufficiency of ni- 
trogenous foods, inevitably leads to a lessening of body re- 
sistance, and finally to physical deterioration as evidenced 
by abundant examples too familiar to be enumerated. 

Continued overfeeding, if extreme, brings in time a 
chain of evil consequences of nearly equal importance. 
The proper diet is probably one moderately in excess of 
that absolutely necessary to answer the demands of the 
body for tissue repair and energy as it is desirable to 



INTRODUCTION 15 

have a reserve of fuel in the body. One of the first 
results of excessive food ingestion in many cases, though 
by no means all, is an abnormal increase in the body 
weight due to the accumulation of adipose tissue. The 
principal ill effects are those consequent on the relatively 
great amount of additional work thus put on the system 
in disposing of the extra fuel. If for only a short time, 
the effects are seldom more severe than moderate disturb- 
ances in the functions of the gastro-intestinal tract. In 
the case of habitual overalimentation, grave disorders of 
metabolism or even degenerative changes take place in the 
body tissues especially in the internal organs and arteries. 

"For people in good health and with good digestion 
there are two important rules to be observed in the regu- 
lation of the diet. The first is to choose the things which 
'agree' with them, and to avoid those which they cannot 
digest and assimilate without harm. The second is to 
use such kinds and amounts of food as will supply all 
the nutrients the body needs and at the same time avoid 
burdening it with superfluous material to be disposed of 
at the cost of health and strength. 

"For guidance in this selection, nature provides us 
with instinct, taste and experience. Physiological chem- 
istry adds to these the knowledge — still new and far 
from adequate — of the composition of food and the laws 
of nutrition. In our actual practice of eating w T e are apt 
to be influenced too much by taste— that is, by the dic- 
tates of the palate ; we are prone to let natural instinct 
be overruled by acquired appetite, and we neglect the 
teachings of experience. We need to observe our diet 
and its effects more carefully and to regulate appetite by 
reason. In doing this we may be greatly aided by the 



16 



FOOD VALUES 



knowledge of what our food contains and how it serves 
its purpose in nutrition." (Atwater.) 

COOKING OF FOODS 

The nutritive value of foods is very definitely influ- 
enced by cooking. As a rule they are made more diges- 
tible for the reason that their structure is so altered as 
to render them much more easily chewed and more acces- 
sible to the digestive juices. Their composition is also 
often considerably changed, depending on the method 
of cooking. During this process certain flavors are de- 
veloped which give them a more pleasing taste and so 
directly assist digestion through stimulation of the diges- 
tive functions. Bacteria and parasites are killed by most 
forms of cooking. 

The above applies especially to the cooking of meats, 
although by some methods they suffer a very significant 
loss in nutrients. Meats lose weight in cooking largely 
in consequence of the loss of water, and to a variable 
extent of fat. 

The following table compiled from Schwenkenbecher 1 
illustrates in a general way these losses in weight: 



100 grams raw, lean meat. 


Boiled. 
Grams. 


Baked. 
Rare. Well done. 
Grams. Grams. 


Beef 

Veal 


58 
72 
65 
63 
70 


82 
78 
85 
78 
76 


62 
61 


Mutton 


70 


Pork 


57 


Fowl .... 









1 "Die Nahrwerthberechnung tischfertiger Speisen." Zeit. f. 
diat. u. physik. Therapie, Bd. 4, H. 5, 1900. 



INTRODUCTION 17 

The changes taking place in meats as the result of 
cooking have been made the subject of very careful ex- 
perimental studies by Grindley and Mojonnier l and 
their conclusions are briefly as follows : When meats are 
boiled from 3.3 to 12.6 per cent of the protein, 0.6 to 37 
per cent of the fat, and 20 to 67 per cent of the salts 
were found in the broth. When roasted, 0.3 to 4.6 per 
cent of protein, 4.5 to 57.5 per cent of the fat and 2.5 
to 57.2 per cent of the mineral matter were found in the 
drippings of the meat. If the broth in the former and 
the drippings in the latter be used there is obviously only 
an insignificant diminution in food value. To a certain 
extent the losses vary directly with the length of time of 
cooking and inversely with the size of the piece of meat. 
Different cuts of the same kind of meat vary greatly in 
the amount and nature of the losses. Schwenkenbecher 
concludes from the study of the results of numerous in- 
vestigations that 100 grams of the muscle portion of the 
common meats when boiled yields roughly from 160 to 
180 calories, when roasted, rare, about 130 calories, well 
done, 150 to 230 calories. The edible portion of lean fish 
boiled furnishes approximately 80 — 100 calories per 100 
grams. Pickling and smoking alters but very slightly 
either the composition or nutritive value of meat and 
fish. On the whole the meats are rendered more pal- 
atable by cooking but slightly less digestible and some- 
times less rich in nutrients. 

In vegetables as in the case of meats the flavors are 

1 "Experiment on Losses in Cooking Meat," United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 
141. 



18 FOOD VALUES 

produced, the structures altered, and the proteids coagu- 
lated. The most important changes are in the starch 
granules, the cell walls of which are ruptured and the 
starch made more soluble. While a proper degree of 
cooking renders the vegetables more palatable and di- 
gestible, excessive cooking produces changes in them 
which make the vegetables unpalatable and indiges- 
tible. 

Snyder, Frisby and Bryant, 1 investigated the effects 
of boiling on the composition of vegetables using pota- 
toes, carrots and cabbage as representatives of the three 
groups, tubers, roots, and pot herbs. They found a con- 
siderable though variable loss in nutritive constituents 
depending on the methods employed. In the case of the 
potatoes, the greatest loss took place when they were 
peeled and then soaked in cold water before boiling, 
namely 46 to 58 per cent of the nitrogenous matter and 
38 per cent of the mineral matter. When put immedi- 
ately into boiling water, the loss in mineral matter re- 
mained the same but the loss in nitrogenous matter was 
only one half as great. If boiled unpeeled, the losses 
were insignificant. As ordinarily cooked carrots were 
found to lose about 40 per cent of the total nitrogen and 
26 per cent of the total sugar, or approximately one 
quarter of the nutritive value. Cabbage when boiled in 
lime water lost about one-half of the mineral matter and 
one-third of the carbohydrates and nitrogenous matter. 

1 "Losses in Boiling Vegetables and the Composition and 
Digestibility of Potatoes and Eggs," United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, Bulletin 
No. 43. 



INTRODUCTION 19 

This loss can be largely prevented if the water in which 
the cabbage is cooked be used. 



METHOD OF CALCULATING FOOD VALUES 

In the ordinary tables of food analysis such as those 
of Atwater and Bryant, the chemical composition of 
foods is given in percentages by weight of protein, fats 
and carbohydrates, and the total caloric value per pound. 
It is therefore evident that in order to determine the 
value of a given diet each article of food must be sepa- 
rately weighed and the weight of the three food ingre- 
dients calculated from the table of percentages. For 
example, Atwater 's table gives the composition of home- 
made white bread as 9.1 per cent protein, 1.6 per cent fat 
and 53.3 per cent carbohydrates. Now if one slice of 
bread weighs 37 grams, the actual weight of the protein, 
fat and carbohydrates is 3.37, 0.59 and 19.72 respectively. 
The number of calories represented in each is then ascer- 
tained by multiplying the first and third figures by 4.1, 
and the second by 9.3 (in each case by the number of 
calories per gram) which gives for protein 13.8, for fats 
5.5, and for carbohydrates 80.9 calories, or a total of 
100.2 calories. 

I have attempted to simplify the calculations of diet 
by arranging a table of American foods on the basis of 
the "average helping." To this end the common meas- 
ure of the serving is given as well as the actual weight 
in grams. It is believed that in this manner the value of 
the diet can be estimated not only very easily but with 
sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes. The actual 
weight of the protein, fats and carbohydrates in the 



20 FOOD VALUES 

average helping is also given, and the fuel value in calo- 
ries for each. The student is thus enabled to make direct 
comparisons of different articles of food according to the 
calories represented by each ingredient as well as the 
total number of calories. The calculation of the total 
fats, carbohydrates and proteids taken at a single 
meal or during the twenty-four hours is made very 
easy. 

When food is ingested in amounts other than the 
average helping its value can be reckoned from its 
weight and the values for 100 grams given in the last col- 
umn. 1 Frequently in such cases the quantity eaten is a 
definite fraction of the "average helping" given in the 
table and its value can be more readily obtained by 
dividing all the values given by that fraction. For 
example, if 1 heaping tablespoonful of apple sauce 
instead of 3 heaping tablespoonsful, as given in 
the table, be served, the value can be determined by 
dividing all the values in the different columns by 
three. 

Suppose it is desired to figure the value of a given 
meal composed as follows : chicken soup, 4 oz. ; lean roast 
beef, 1 slice; boiled potato, 1 medium sized; string 
beans, 2 heaping tablespoonsful; white bread, 1 slice; 
butter, 1 small ball; glass milk; chocolate pudding, 
2 heaping tablespoonsful, with whipped cream, 1 heap- 
ing tablespoon. Eeference to Table II gives the fol- 
lowing : 



1 A very convenient table scale for weighing foods is manufactured 
by John Chatillon & Sons, New York. 



INTRODUCTION 



21 



Food. 



Soup 

Roast beef 

Boiled potato .... 

String beans 

White bread 

Butter 

Milk 

Chocolate pudding, 
Whipped cream . . . 

Totals 



Protein. 


Fats. 


Carbo- 
hydrates. 


Grams 


Cal. 


Grams 


Cal. 


Grams 


Cal. 


12.60 

23.33 

3.75 

.48 

3.37 

.15 

7.26 

4.99 

1.11 


51.7 
95.7 
15.4 

2.0 

13.8 

.6 

29.8 

20.5 

4.6 


0.96 

1.66 

.15 

.66 

.59 

12.75 

8.80 

7.90 

7.72 


8.9 

15.4 

1.4 

6.1 

5.5 

118.6 

81.8 

73.5 

71.8 


2.88 


11.8 


31.35 

1.14 

19.72 


128.5 

4.7 

80.9 


11.00 

27.83 
1.06 


45.1 

114.1 

4.3 

389.4 


57.04 


234.1 


41.19 


383.0 


94.98 



Total 
Cal. 



72 
111 
145 

13 
100 
119 
157 
208 

81 

1,006 



The table shows that we have a total of 57.04 grams pro- 
tein, 41.19 grams fat, and 94.98 grams carbohydrates 
yielding respectively 234.1, 383.0 and 389.4 calories or 
a total of 1,006 calories. When only the total fuel value 
is desired it will readily be seen to be a very simple mat- 
ter of addition to ascertain the desired figures. 

On the other hand, the arrangement of weights and 
values in Table II facilitates the choice of a menu for 
special diseases as diabetes or nephritis. 

The use of Table I affords a ready means of changing 
from one system of weights or measures to another. 
This is often necessary in food determinations. 

Table IV is abstracted from Atwater and Bryant 1 for 
the purpose of furnishing the percentage composition of 
the more common American foods for those wishing to 
know the exact value of raw food. 



1 "The Chemical Composition of American Food Materials, " 
United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment 



Station, Bulletin No. 28, 1906. 



TABLES 



table equivalents (approximate) 




1 teaspoon 


fluid = 5 c.c. or J fluid ounce, 


1 dessertspoon 




< = 10 ' 




' i ' 




1 tablespoon 




' = 15 ' 




' i ' 




1 ordinary cup 




' =250 ' 




' 8 ' 




1 tumbler or glass 




1 =250 ' 




' 8 ' 




1 cordial glass 




' = 20 ' 




' 1 ' 




1 sherry glass 




1 = 30 ' 




' 1 ' 




1 cocktail glass 




' = 75 ' 




' 2i ' 




1 claret glass 




1 =120 ' 




' 4 ' 




1 champagne glass 




< =135 " ' 


' 4 ' 






ABBREVIATIONS 




a. 


= average. 




a. h. 


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c. 


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d. 


= diameter. 




dsp. 


= dessertspoon. 




h. 


= heaping. 




m. 


= medium. 




sq. 


= square. 




tbsp 


= tablespoon. 




tsp. 


= 


teaspoon. 









WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



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PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 27 





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PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 31 



■sureiQ 00T 



NMNO00H00MhhO«OMHt1< 



"sauopQ 



03-73 
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O^ONNrfr-((NiCCDOOOlN^©iO 



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£ a 



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32 



FOOD VALUES 






OiOOOO 
CO icrfH CO 
C^ CO *0 CN 



MOMOiCOSOONiOiOOCOM 
iOOl>Cii-iOCOCOCOOt^-CO'^iO 



•891.101133 



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05»oo5ootDiooot>coa5t^.C5ooco 



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HOOOCO 



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cm oo 

00 i-l 



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i-HCN i-H(M r-i 



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iM ^ OCOiOCO 



CO CN 
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t^i^O'^o^'^iai^ 



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i-HCOCOrH^OCMl>00-^t^Oit>.Oil> 
t^-^l>COCO^cO>OiOI>i01>CO(M 






O 00 co CO 



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NHNNfOHNHHMHHINH 



i-H OO^OOCNOOOOO'^OOCNOOCM'^ 

i-l t^ CN tQ CO TjH rH ^-1 O t^ C5 lO l> »0 CO 

r-i lO "tf iC >0 t>- CO »0 "cH CO >0 Tft Tfi >0 CO 






oo co b- 
cm coooo 



co ^H i> t- 



CN CM 00 CN "* rh "^ CM 
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PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 33 



•snreio 001 


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34 



FOOD VALUES 






ONHOCOHHTjdOOONWOiHOOCM 
OS CO 00 CO O CM Tfi iO i-i NHOOHO 



•sauop^ 



t^ CO 00 CM iO 00 iO CO OS rfi »o 00 00 CO 00 

OSCM OS lO CO CM t^ rH CM lO i-H O 

IMH rH 



i-l O OS CO 
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8 * 

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CSTti CO-^COOO-— U^- CM i— icOOSOfMOSOSOr^OO 

t^rtH ^(MNtDCO^iHCOT-KrOIN^iONNfflCO 
CO i-i CO OS Tfi OS »0 CM i-i i-i i-H l>t- Tt< 



^^OOIO^OOOOOOOCOMOCCON 
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(MNHMNHiOW 
CO CM i-i 01 i-t 



CO i—i OS 00 i-H o 



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i>OOOAOCOi-H>cOCSCOi-HCOiO(N(NOS^ 



OSCO ©QOrtiTt<^cONOONM(/)iOOOOH 

N_H N00N«5HCqO^HHH©ONHHO 

CMCM CO "tf i-HtH i-H 



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COi-H Ot^COCO^ rH CM i-H 



& a 



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N'tOOOOOONOOOOOO ©*© »0 O © 



Hffl(N00ONN05NC0NG0HCD©NH 

ost^coTtitotocoooososi— tt^Tfi>t^-^oo 



fcD 2 



o»o 

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o3 o3 



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05 05 JS 03 r< 

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PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 35 



•sureiQ 001 



CO © <M O © rJH 
CM rH CM 



Tt<t^©CO<M©l^COCOTt< 

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r- I H CM rH r- I 





»0»Ol>tNO00N^00S 



CM CM © © O CM 
iO rH CM ON 



rHOOiOCOCOiO©rHCMCO 
CO CM © i> 1> IO rH CO 



IOCO ococo 

CXIOOJ^^H 



MOiONOOOOOH 
©CO CO ©COCO CO 00 OC5 



CM CO tF rH CO CM 



l— I t^ l^ t^ rH O 



© i— i CO l^ l^ 



^ CO © ©CO © 
© rH 00 CM —i rH 



© O © b- © CM © xrr' © 00 

NHOiHOOOHHTfO 



00 i-i CO CM 



©toco "^ 



*o C5 © co co 



iotjh©coi^©©^ooco 

»OtOCO^©tOOOCO©r-l 



©co co co co co cm th cm 



© © rH b- t-- rH 

CO CO © © © *0 



©COrHiO"OCO©iOOO© 
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t- iO © © CM © ©©©iO©©©©©© 
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rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH rH CM rH 






_5 rt H 



CMrHH^cod S~ CO Th CM CM CM CM 






ScM 



ijsisfi 




qj o o^^^^^ 1 ctS,o o 3 
w Ul H H H 



36 



FOOD VALUES 






OscOOS©cOOScOT*cOCO<Nl^^t- 
TfiCOiO<NN»0 , '*H>.*Ot^COCOCO»0 



T^i-HCDOCO 



•saijo^Q 






6% 

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Tj(NNN(NiOHCOWHTt(HTt<^ 00 ^ CO CO <M 

05NIMOCC 
CO <N "tfCOCO 



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(a, 



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Tji 1> OS 



ecu- 

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CO O CO <M 00 
iO O <N h iO 



ooTt-cor^ixNt^iMt^ior^c^coc^ 

^HCOtOiCCOc005COCO(NCOCO(MCO 



CO CO Tfi t-i us 
tH i-H CO T*< <N 



ONNOO 
tP COOOOCO 



i-H T-H rH tH <N tH 






"tf rt< cO(M CO to 
OS ©5 00COJ> 00 



m a 



O-^OiOOOOOOOOOOOO 
tOOSOcOOOOtOOSOCO»0(N»0 



1— I 1— I 7—1 Tt< 



HCOH ,_| r-, <M r-H rH tH 



QIOMOO 
OC0 00OO 

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3 



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02 O rtN 02 OJSj 02 2 

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c3 c3 c3 d oi ci d ci 



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PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 37 



•SLUT3JO 001 
•Wd SGU0{B3 



, 89UO{'B3 



•el 

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rHrHCMrHrH 



O5C0 
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rf CO CO 00 
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CM O rH rH 



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CM CM rH O CO CM CO OO 

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38 



FOOD VALUES 



•soraio 001 



i-HCOO 

CO CD CO 



l>TfCOt^b~r-H>t>.COOO©T--<T^ 

Ttico>ocoooooGOooT-(coi^ioeo 

COCO<N<M<MCOCN<MCO<M<M<M'^ 



•S9lJO[^3 



00OO 



OOiONCJnOOOO 
OO^himwoOOOO 






O'-tcO'-iTFO'-icO.-HCoaJcCxM 



OiOOOiOSOJ(M05TtiiOiOOiO»C 
O'iNNNQC00ONCD00(»'* 



CT>ONOOOO(NCO(MCO(NNeO 
iO00"^01C0Oit^r^T-tO51>00O 



COGOOiCJO>Cii-iiOcC>uOC5©i-i 

<M <N rH H i-t i-l (N <N HHI^H 



Ph 



^ °. ""1 

COIXM 



HMHC<liOiOH(MiOCCiO»003 



0>0»OC00000050ii-HCO>OCOCO 

COCO "* rH 



^OiON-HHOOO©050)00© 
CMOOiOcOCi(MC505r-icOiOCO'tf 






t^ <N ^ 



t^CO^CO(N'*cO»OTt<T-HCOcOCO 



"^COCOCOCOCOCOCOrHCMCO'* | rH 



^ o 



OCO"+iCOi-iOO(MrfC^O<NCO 



©O>0> 
GO CO CO 



§ 



NP^'x 

i-t\W\CO 

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PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 39 






HNCCMMWONOi 



COCN 04 



NOW 

co o>co 

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•sariopQ 



(Mt^t^TfCOOC-HCMCO 
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co o co 
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t-H (N <M 



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OHNt^OOhCNOO 

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»0 1>O 

rH CO 



r- 1 CO CO O O CO N CO 

HOOOOCN'tCOO 



O5G0t-h 
CO COCO 



t- O iO 

r* iO CO 



©NOOMOO'tHiO 
t^COTjH|>OOtO(MCO 



lOONiOHffliOCOM 
GOTfHOt^i-i--HCO<MCO 



OOON 



co<n© 



iOCO<NCO00i— lO^CO 

Tfl r-l lO CO ^ id O M H 



"^ <M Tt< 



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i-tCO(MCO'-i(McO>OCO 



I--OSGO 
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i-H i-H HHCO 



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i-OOOCCOCOWNOON 
l^(MGO'*CO>OOOiO'-i 



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bfi 



40 



FOOD VALUES 



•sureio 001 


00 ONO CO 
CO »OCO QO i-H 


»o 


jad 80110^3 


CNJ COCO i-H 


^ 


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CO 
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CO 


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lO 




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03 

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rH "^ GO lO CM 


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]> i-H CO i-H t4H 


CO 




O 


CO HrtlO N 


i-H 




4 


CO © CM !>• © 


CO 






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d 


m 

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00 


2> cm cm ^ © 


i-H 




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co 




o 


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GO 


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CO 


<* 


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co co 


CO 


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CO "OOOC 


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^ 


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03 


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a 










GO MN(N 


GO 


CN 


CM CO CO C 


1^ 


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c3 g 


i-H CO i-H Tt 


lO 


CO 


f£ O 


t-. CO 


lO 


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+i »; 










CO OCOiC 

CO O i-H CC 


o 
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"3 * 


i-H r-l 


CM 


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>> 




• 




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PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 41 



•suitjjq 001 




oc 




G 




i<NWH ©COrHOltO 
CO t^ GO © r-i CO CO rH 1^- 


lad sauo[B3 






:. 




CO CO rH CO 


*S3lIO[6Q 




CO 
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© 


*(N!OH 1> CO rt< Ol © 

goi^©© TfoioHO 


m°x 






CN 






. 




o 


tO 


© Ol © CO h f J (M O © 


63 

at 


O 53 




© 


OS 


COGOiOtjH CO l^- © © Ol 


cj-~ 




CO 


CO 


t^r^J>CO J>"tfTHO© 


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1—1 T— 1 






IN 


PC 




CtOOO ^OOOCi 


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LO 


a 




ooi-^logo -* >c o ■* »o 


53 




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,_ 




r^rHcoio co rH 01 «* oi 




o 






pi 




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£ 




OJ 


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O M 




GO 


ir 




HCQH^I © tH CO 

i— 1 i-H i— 1 © 


02 
o3 


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co 


fc> 








,_l 


C 




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Ph 


a 




r- 1 






Ol tJH t— 1 lO rJilOOHrJi 




c3 




T* 


CO 


rH r- 1 r-l O 




a 










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co 


oc 




© © CO CO rH LO CO tO 'O 


o 


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to 


tc 




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tt 




r-i r^ rH rH rH 






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Cs ! "*. ""1 R O GO CO GO o 
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a 

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CO 


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p. 




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■* £ 




CO 


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^ o 




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1—1 


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+$ 






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d 

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8 

c 


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42 



FOOD VALUES 






^ ^00 00 CO 
CO t^ 00 CO 05 

CO CO CO coco 



Ot^cocM 
oo co oo co 

NCOH(M 






8 



lOOlHHH 

»0 Tfri b- <N OS 



(N i-H CO 00 

*C(N rtH 00 






OHCOINM 



OOOHiOcD 



NMOOO 

O0O5NHH 



C-l COrJi CO 

MMHH 



1.1 

O 



COIN CO 



l^ »0 CO (N OS 






iQCO^ »C(M 



loooco 
ooiot^ 



oo i^ t^ co o 
b- OiC ^co 



^NNMH 



OS »o »0 C> 
CO O lOCO 



►* 2 
£ O 



ooohoon 

CO <McO<M iO 



•^ t^l> i-l CO 



COONN 
"5 -<cH00*O 



OO^OM 
l>-^rt<COC<J 



CO CO COO 
(NINMH 



I 



Oh 



C0<M <N 



CO x S^ 

H X CO CO 
XV X X 



7i 



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c3 c3 c3 






d ci ci ci 



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<v 
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ill! 



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w <^ 9 o 3 c o 



© H d 
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»5 .;_, 



CO 



<!00^ 



PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 43 



•snreio 00T 

J8d S8TJ0p3Q 



OSOO 



d O 03 

fl 2 « 

+3 .3 d 
0<5 02 



i 



W>.. « . 

"3 2 »H g 

& * g o » 

.g"d bDi-HrH 





•BaUOJ'BQ 


CO CO 
CO -tf 


<M 


§ 




F*v>x 


CO CM 


CM 


<M 






, 


iO CO 


00 


i— i 




■ 02 


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CO 00 


t*. 


Tt< 




3-3 


I> 1-1 


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i-H 




•82 

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T— t 1-H 


i-H 


i-H 






|Q CO 


00 


CO 




a 


©00 


"*. 


oo 




pd 


a 


co oo 


oo 


t^ 






o 


Tj< <N 


CO 


<N 






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co 


to 






O co 


OS CO 


«* 


co 






03-2 


CI o 


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o 










03 

a 


OS i-H 


OS 

1^ 


8 






03 


CO i-i 


T}H 


t^ 






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OSO 


CO 


iQ 




d 


■il 


co-"* 


C3 


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CM <M 


<N 


CM 




5 

2 


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<M 


OS 




2 


IO00 


kO 


OS 


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Ph 


a 

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CO to 


iO 


<tf 


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t-Os 
COCO 

coco 


8 


CO 


^ u 


Th 00 


»o 


iO 


1 


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i— i 


nd S2 


coco 


IQ 


IO 


' — ' 


i-H CO 


o 


OS 


g 

n 


0) ^ 


i-H i-H 


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&= ° 
















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J? 




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-t» 




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c3 c3 


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i-H.h\>h\ § bfii-ICN IH 



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44 



FOOD VALUES 



•surejQ 001 
.iad saiiopQ 


CO l> CO 
co CO CO 

i— 1 r-t t-H 


■sauopsQ 

TO 


CO O CT> 

00 o t^ 

i-H CM i-H 




O oi" 

"3J5 

O 


rH 00 CX) 

tJH CN iQ 
00 b- O 


03 

a 




o »o o 

lO b- 00 

O b- io 
CM r-i CM 


i 


o 


oo co io 

00 CO CO 

CO OJ Tj< 


05 

s 
o 


CM CO «tf 

rt< © © 
1> © "0 


'3 
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£ "3 

"c3-~ 
O 


O CO (M 

O CO CO 
CO CO (M 


03 

a 

2 
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t-h CM CO 
CO rH r^ 

t~- 00 CO 




iO (M O 

CO © © 

r- cm t-h 

©00 b- 


2 a 


«tf © O 

CO (M r-t 


a 


ft 
CM CM CM 


d 

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u 

o 




f 


CO 

SEi 

1 

Q 
O 
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1 till A^ltjl Jill |!| 

g> H3 "5 bCCM CM --^ § U)rH 1-H T-H tH U bfirH CM i-H CM 



PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 45 





CT> b- -* 
t-h OS GO 


•sauopQ 


rH H< b- 

CO (N CO 

i-i co 


A* 


O oo 

"5 2 


b- 00 rH 

C5 CM CO 

Tt< OS HH 


EB 

a 
s 




<N CN CO 

rH O b- 

<N b- i-H 

rH HH rH 


0Q 




b- O CO 

CO CO 
CO C5 


a 

a 

o 


Tt< CO CO 

00 h © 

CO O 


.9 

1 




© © »o 

GO b- CO 

rH CO rH 


| CO O *o 

g Tj< CT> Ttl 
O 




rH CO OS 
© tH lO 

CO >o CO 
CO © CO 


.SP 9 


o <* o 

CO CO GO 


1 

a* 


a rd 8 


.2 

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rd rd rd 




02 
fa 
fa 
P 
Eh 
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Q 
O 
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S» iirH i3 fc£COCO W\HH fe. M^H(NH|-1!> 

d 



46 



FOOD VALUES 






t 





CO O CMCM 

i-l i-H »-H 


*S3U0[B3 


(M O (N »0 

i— 1 r- 1 i— 1 i— t 




O TO 

o' 


CM 55 CM CO 

^H CO i-l(M 

OS i-H COO 
i—i i— 1 i— ( 


oo 

a 

a 
O 


«o 00 oco 
<M to oo 

<M 00 CM lO 
CM <M COCM 


ED 

03 


(I . 

O TO 

Is 2 


t^ i-i oo iO 
CO CM iOCO 


CO 

a 

2 
o 


<M (M OO 

i— t <N CO t^ 

CO 


d 

o 

H 


O TO 

•3 .a 

o 


00 OS CO t^ 

CO voio 

CM 


TO 

a 
o 


iO i-h oo 
00 CM CO tJh 


(H CD 


i-i CO OW 
00 00 CO 00 

t* O «OCO 
t- I- CO O 


5 g 


O O OiO 
i-H O OCM 

i— t i—l i-H i-H 


-1-3 

i 

a* 


d 03 
CO CM t-i i-H 


o 


o3 o3 c3 c3 


t 

i 
1 



t 
< 

c 

p 




2 

D 

3 


§ • g • s ^ -3 §>'•* 

• S M O £ ft ~ g -Ogfl 
O 3 » ^ $% ^-S^cl. ft£ ^ « §v 

.g O bOCM »h CO <M O bfiOS iH r-( cn\(M ^ 5 C3 2 
"2 03^ aS 1- * -3 o3 ^ a3 

d Q 1 



PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 47 





OS 00 


i— i 

<* 




saiioi'BQ 


tJH 00 CO 
CO 1> CO 


rd 


O 03 

■a.8 

o 


O CO CO 

OS <N O 

CO CM 00 


a 
a 

o 


CO O iO 
00 to CO 

CO iO OS 

r- 1 rH 


GO 
■♦5 


O tn 

3-2 

o 


r^ os io 
to O CO 

T* rH b- 


a 

o 


rH O t^ 
OS Tt< t> 

^ -H t> 


.3 

"o 
o 

M 
P4 


^ »o OS CI 

| i OS TfJ O 
- | rH rH rH 


§ 

a 

5 


CO CO 00 

I- CO T}i 

^ CO OI 


^ 1 


rH O iS 

00 b- I>- 

(N iO CO 

CO 00 




o o b- 

OS O CO 

rH 


-1-3 


^ r£ 
rd ^ W 

<n <N no 


d 

.2 

o 


i 

rO 

H A ^ . 

rCj ,Cl rj ^J 

O O 

c3 o3 T3 fl 


c 

p 


32 
H 

&h 

3 
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Q 
D 



i.i . nd 

S • S (J • OC CU 

. • o £ h a g § sp 

s Sfd^ o «> ra.bCflSr-qo^.O-, 

»3 « bfirH rH rH rH rH « b{)H\(N U rH rH "fcj 

•2 -3 ^hh £& ui 5 

^ PQ W fi 


) 



48 



FOOD VALUES 



•sutcjo 001 
jad saiJopQ 



oo a 

tH 00 
T*l r-l 






I '- 






O CO 
0CI> 



i—l tH 



CO i-H 

CO<M 



£ a 



CO O 



# b£ 

"53 






GO 

X5 



•r-( CO 



4> . 

Sec ^ 



S3 2^ 



. ^^^ a § a 3 

■t3 — ""C bfi o <» hn^3 OT • b£ . 



m 



!4* 
C-'G 

53 flj o w 
£ b£)COi-HCO 



S bfl 

« bC .773 

• Mo (S 



O £ 



PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 49 



•suraiQ 001 




NMN H 




"^ CO 

rH CN 


jad saiiop^ 




CO rt< ^ CO 




rH TH 


•saiiop?Q 




"^ TjM Tt< CN 

I>tJH 00 rH 




05 TJH 


pra 




CO 








j 




05 I>rH CN 




1> © 


o| 


O on 




b-cOCN CO 




l> CO 


"3-2 




iO(N© O 




l> CO 


■si 
at 

Jq 


o 




CO 










CN CM rt< 00 




iO iO 


on 

a 




HlOH © 




OJ © 


a 




^CDIO TjM 




00 00 









rH rH l> 




1—i 




A 




CO «-i <M tH 




© th 




o » 




C5 Tt< CO CN 




CO o 




es-< 




i—i i—i 




l—{ 


i 


O 














O CN tJ< CO 




«3 CN 


fe 


a 




O *0 W CN 




CO i-t 




c3 




i—l i—l H 




rH 




O 












j 




CN t> 0> O 




CO CN 


.9 


O 73 




NNOM 




CO CO 












o 


o' 














CO lO Tt< Tt< 




T-\ t- 


b 


i 




NCO^ O) 




CO i> 


Ph 




rH rH 




CO 




o 










(-4 00 




OM^ N 




CO rH 


£ a 




© CN CN iO 




iO © 


.08 g 




MHH M 




rH 


>£ o 




CN 




CO 






ooo o 




lO y* 




CN rH CN O 




00 rH 


"53 h 




rH 






£ ° 










tA 










-+j 




fl P) 




d 


-*-3 




«J3 02 




°Q 


i 




.xs £ 




a i 




.£ ^ W rd 




rd °° 






TjMtJtjH CM 




CN TJ 


d 




>> 




rA 


.2 

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O rd 

o . 




H •¥ 

•*. 8 


o 




. . O c3 




03 O 


Ph 




rH rH rH 




** 




1 

PI 








bfl 

a 


© 




T^rS 






o 








a 


aj 


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;g . 


bfi 


£^3 




r 0Q 
fa 
fa 


1 

CO 

1 

CO 






8 

o 


O 


el cl 

O bfi 

S rt 


M S-i 

£c3 ^ 


a>3 be 

-r= /-A M 

w « dq ° a 

-r3 S O — 4 <L 




W 

n 
o 
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02 

f-. o- 

arte 
s^ is 

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o • a o 

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£6 


r-KrH 


hPh S b(A\ t> £ 

g£ g> 






Q 



















50 



FOOD VALUES 



•sureiQ 00X 
J9d saiio^Q 


8 S 8 


•sauopQ 


rH «tf CO 

(NO O 




83-2 

O 


O rH lO 

i-i 00 o 


in 

a 

C<J 

o 


CD iO O 
CD CN O 

CO rH lO 

CM <N 






"tf 00 

CD 




CO 

1 

(-1 

o 


rH CD 

lO CO 




d 
2 


O oo 

u 


rH GO 




i 

o 


lO rH 
CO l>- 

rH 
rH 




5r! °5 


N N O 

00 to 

iO rH 


Weight. 

Grams. 


10 8 3 

rH 


-J3 

1 


d d 

« rd a 


d 
.2 

'■+3 

M 

O 

fin 


>> 

'O rd J3 

o 

<■> 03 03 
rH 


f 


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=H 

Q 



o 


D. Miscellaneous — Con- 
tinued. 
Sugar cookies, home 

mado 


Spanish cream 

Ingredients : 

1 h. tsp. gelatin. 

2 h. tbsp.sugar. 

1 c. milk. 

1 egg. 

1 tbsp. sherry. 

10. Condiments and 

Sauces. 

Caramel sauce 


Ingredients: 
Y c. sugar. 
Y% c water. 



PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 51 



f 



•sotuiq 001 


oc 


10 

so 
w 


CN 

c 


co 


•S9U0^3 


<M t- rH TtH 


rd 


O to 

■si 

o 


t-h co o 

O CD CO 
tH CO i-l 




03 

a 

S3 
M 

o 


CO CO O 
«tf CO »o 

(M CO "«tf 

CO 




DC 

-4-> 

o3 
ft 


■§.s 


Tf io »0 Til 

O T* Tjl 
rH CO l>- 


03 

a 
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TjH CO Tt< O 

o t-j os q 

T-t CO CO 


d 

2 

ft 


O 0! 

■3-8 

Q 


CM 1-4 I- 




o5 

a 
a 

a 


O T-t h- 

co q oq 

rH 






O N CO O 

tQ ^ rH O 

CO to tH rjt 

rH CO • 


§ s 

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O O tO rH 

<M ^ Tt< tH 


a 

o3 


O. T \ « 

1 = ■ & 

rH <N CO rH 


d 

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Ah 


rd rd ►d rd 

o3 o3 o3 o3 


J 


fa 

E 
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H 
Jl 

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c 

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c 

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lt£§I I 

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d 5 

1 


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cu &C 
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...£ Sr^ 

d • . t-l 

Tg|= ^g 

bfiTt< rH r-KpL, 

d 
) pH 
1 



52 



FOOD VALUES 



•suxejQ 001 

J9d SaiIOFB£) 


lO O OCOCC 
<N OS CO(MTt 
"# 00 Ci<M<N 




•S9U0^3 


O t» i-H O t- 

W 00 (NINOJ 


1 OQ 


o M 

is .a 
o 


CO CM 


<N CO 

COO 


s 

cS 

u 

o 


CO O 


OS 

r— 1 




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161.5 
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120.9 
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Weight. 

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Hollandaise sauce 

Ingredients: 
Vl c butter. 
Yolks 2 eggs. 

1 tsp. lemon juice. 
Salt, cayenne pepper. 

Mayonnaise dressing 

Ingredients : 

2 eggs. 

2 c. olive oil. 
1 tbsp. vinegar, or 
1 " lemon juice. 
Salt, pepper, mustard. 
Olive oil 


c 
5 

c 

> 

5 


s 

p 


Ingredients : 
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3^ c. sugar. 
3 tbsp. milk. 
2 " sherry. 



PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 53 





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PREPARED FOODS— EDIBLE PORTION 57 

REFERENCES. 

1. Atwater and Bryant. " The Chemical Composi- 
tion of American Food Materials." Bulletin No. 28 (re- 
vised), Office Experiment Station, United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, 1900. 

2. Dettweiler. " Handbuch der Ernahrrungsthera- 
pie und Diatetik," v. Leyden, Bd. II, 1904. 

3. Fisher. " A Graphic Method in Practical Die- 
tetics, " 1907. 

4. Hutchison. " Food and the Principles of Die- 
tetics," 1908. 

5. Kellogg. " The Battle Creek Sanitarium Diet 
List," 1909. 

6. Lang worthy. " Use of Fruit as Food. " Farmers' 
Bulletin, No. 293, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, 1907. 

7. Monthly Bulletin. Massachusetts State Board of 
Health, Oct., 1910. 

8. Richmond. " Dairy Chemistry," 1899. 

9. Schwenkenbecher. " Die Nahrwerthbereehnung 
tischf ertiger Speisen. Zeit. fur di'dt. und physik. Thera- 
pie, IV, 1901. 

10. Snyder. " Dairy Chemistry," 1906. 

11. Williams. " The Composition of Cooked Vege- 
tables." Journ. Chem. Soc. Trans., LXI, 1892, 226. 

12. " The Composition of Cooked Fish." 

Journ. Chem. Soc. Trans., LXVI, 1897, 649. 

13. Woods and Snyder. ' ' Cereal Breakfast Foods. ' ' 
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 249, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1906. 

14. Woods. " Meats: Composition and Cooking." 
Farmers' Bulletin, No. 34, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1904. 



58 



FOOD VALUES 



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ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 



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60 



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REFERENCES. 

1. Atwater. " The Nutritive Value of Alcohol/ ' 
Physiological Aspects of the Liquor Problem/ ' II, 

1903. 

2. Bigelow. ' ' The Composition of American Wines, ' ' 
Bulletin No. 59, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, 1900. 

3. Crompton. " Foods and Food Adulterants. ' ' Bul- 
letin No. 13, United States Department of Agriculture, 
1877. 

4. Konig. " Chemische Zusammensetzung der men- 
schlichen Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, " Bd. I, 1903. 

5. Rupp. " Die Untersuchung von Nahrungsmitteln, 
Genussmitteln und Gebrauchgegenstanden. ' ' Heidel- 
berg, 1894. 



COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOODS 63 



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COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOODS 77 



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FOOD VALUES 



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COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOODS 93 






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COMPOSITION OF AMERICAN FOODS 97 



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INDEX 



INDEX 



Abbreviations, table of, 24. 
Acorns, 94. 

Alcohol, food value of, 4. 
Alcoholic beverages, 58, 59, 60, 

61. 
Ale, 61. 

Almonds, 53, 94. 
American fermented cider, 60. 
American malt liquors, 61. 
American sweet cider, 60. 
American wines, 59. 
Apple pie, 42, 85. 
Apple sauce, 37, 93. 
Apple tapioca pudding, 46, 85. 
Apples, 36, 90. 

baked, 37. 

dried, 92. 
Apricot sauce, 37, 93. 
Apricots, 90. 

canned, 93. 

dried, 37, 92. 
Arrowroot gruel, 40. 
Artichokes, French, 86. 

cooked, 34. 
" As purchased," 28. 
Ash, 1, 12. 
Asparagus, 86. 

canned, 34, 88. 

cooked, 86. 

cream of, soup, canned, 31, 
96. 
Availability, 7. 



Bacon, smoked, 69. 

Baked beans, canned, 34, 88. 

homemade, 34. 
Baked custard, 44. 
Baker's cake, 84. 
Bananas, 36, 90. 

baked in skin, 46. 
peeled, 46. 
Barley, pearled, 79. 
Barley gruel, 40. 
Barley meal and flour, 79. 
Bass, black, 73. 

sea, 73. 

striped, 73. 
Bean soup, homemade, 30, 96. 
Beans, 34, 86. 

butter, green, 86. 

dried, 86. 

haricot verts, 89. 

little green, canned, 88. 

red kidney, canned, 34, 88. 

string, canned, 88. 
cooked, 34, 86. 
fresh, 86. 
Beechnuts, 94. 
Beef, 26, 27, 63, 64, 65. 

boiled, canned, 65. 

brains, 64. 

brisket, 63. 
corned, 65. 

canned, 65. 

chuck, 63. 



101 



102 



INDEX 






Beef, cooked, 26, 27, 64. 
corned and pickled, 65. 

canned, 26, 65. 
dried, salted and smoked, 65, 
flank, 63. 

corned, 65. 
fore quarter, 64. 

shank, 64. 
fresh, 63, 64. 
heart, 64. 
hind quarter, 64. 
kidney, 64. 
liver, 64. 
loin, 63. 
luncheon, 65. 
mess, 65. 
organs, 64. 
plate, corned, 65. 
porterhouse steak, 63. 
pressed, 64. 
ribs, 63. 
roast, 26, 64, 65. 

very lean, 26. 
round, 63. 

round steak, cooked, 64. 
rump, 63. 

corned, 65. 
sandwich meat, 64. 
scraps, cooked, 64. 
shoulder and clod, 64. 
sirloin butt, 63. 
sirloin steak, 63. 
spiced, 65. 
suet, 64. 
sweetbreads, 64. 
tenderloin, 63. 

broiled, 64. 
tongue, 64. 

canned, 27, 65. 

pickled, 65. 
Beef juice, 26, 79. 
Beef soup, home made, 30, 96. 



Beer, 61. 

Beet greens, cooked, 34, 87. 

Beets, cooked, 34, 86. 

Benedictine, 59. 

Berries, 36, 90, 91, 92. 

Biscuits, 82. 

home made, 38, 82. 
Blackberries, 36, 90. 

canned, 93. 
Blackfish, 73. 
Blanc mange, 47. 
Blueberries, canned, 93. 
Bluefish, 73. 

cooked, 29. 
Bock beer, 61. 
Boston crackers, 39, 83. 
Bouillon, canned, 30, 96. 
Brandy, California, 58. 

cherry, 58. 

cognac, 58. 
Brazil nuts, 53, 94. 
Bread, 38, 82, 83. 
Bread pudding, 43. 
Breakfast foods, 40. 
Brown bread, baker's, 38, 82. 
Brussels sprouts, canned, 89. 
Buckwheat flour, 79. 
Buns, cinnamon, 38, 82. 

currant, 38, 82. 

hot cross, 82. 

sugar, 82. 
Butter, 31, 77. 
Butter beans, cooked, 34. 
Butter crackers, 39, 83. 
Butterfish, 73. 
Buttermilk, 33, 77. 
Butternuts, 94. 

Cabbage, 86. 
cooked, 34. 
Calf's-foot jelly, 28, 79. 
California red wine, 59. 



INDEX 



103 



California white wine, 59. 
Calorie, 5. 
Cake, 42, 84. 
Candy, 85. 
Canned soups, 97. 
Cantaloupe, 36. 
Capon, 27, 70. 
Caramel sauce, 50. 
Carbohydrates, 1, 2. 
Carrots, 86. 

cooked, 34. 
Catawba sweet wine, 59. 
Catsup, tomato, 51, 89. 
Cauliflower, 86. 

cooked, 34. 
Caviare, 29, 76. 
Celery, 34, 87. 

cream of, soup, 31, 96. 

creamed, 34. 
Cereal coffee, 95. 
Cerealine, 80. 
Champagne, 59, 60. 
Chartreuse, 59. 
Chaud eau sauce, 51. 
Cheese, 32, 77, 78. 

American pale, 32, 77. 

American red, 77. 

Boudon, 77. 

California flat, 77. 

Camembert, 32. 

Cheddar, 32, 77. 

Cheshire, 32, 78. 

cottage, 78. 

cream, 78. 

Dutch, 32. 

Fromage de Brie, 32. 

full-cream, 32. 

imitation full-cream, 78. 

imitation old English, 78. 

Limburger, 32, 78. 

Neuchatel, 32, 78. 

pineapple, 32, 78. 



Cheese, Roquefort, 32, 78. 

Stilton, 32. 

Swiss, 32, 78. 
Cherries, 36, 90. 

canned, 93. 
Cherry jelly, 93. 
Chestnuts, 53, 94. 
Chicken, 27, 70. 

boned, canned, 73. 

broilers, 70. 

creamed, on toast, 27. 

dark meat of, 70. 

fricasseed, 27. 

giblets, 70. 

gizzard, 70. 

heart, 70. 

light meat of, 70. 

liver, 70. 

potted, 73. 

roast, 27. 

sandwich, canned, 73. 

young, 70. 
Chicken gumbo, canned, 30, 73, 

96. 
Chicken sandwich, 39, 97. 
Chicken soup, canned, 73, 96. 

homemade, 30, 96. 
Chocolate, 95. 
Chocolate custard, 44. 
Chocolate layer cake, 42, 84. 
Chocolate pudding, 43. 
Cider, 59, 60. 
Citron, dried, 92. 
Clam chowder, home made, 30. 

96. 
Clams, long, 29, 76. 

round, 29, 76. 
Claret, 60. 
Cocktail, 58. 
Cocoa, 54, 95. 
Cocoanut, 53, 94. 

prepared, 95. 



104 



INDEX 



Cocoanut milk, 94. 
Cod, cooked, 29. 

salt, 75. 

boneless, 75. 

steak, 73. 

whole, 73. 
Coffee, 54. 

Condensed milk, 33, 78. 
Condiments, 50, 51, 52, 89, 90. 
Consomme^ canned, 30, 96. 
Cookies, 49, 50, 84. 
Cooking, loss of weight in, 17. 
Corn, canned, 34, 89. 

cream of, soup, 31, 96. 

green, 87. 
cooked, 34. 

preparations of, 80. 
Corn bread, 38, 82. 
Cornmeal, granular, 80. 

unbolted, 80. 
Cornmeal gruel, 41. 
Cottolene, 79. 
Crab-apple jelly, 93. 
Crabs, canned, 77. 

hardshell, 30, 76. 
Crackers, 39, 83. 
Cranberries, 90. 

stewed, 37. 
Cream, 32, 78. 

whipped, 32. 
Cream lunch crackers, 39, 83. 
Cream pie, 42, 85. 
Cream sauce, 51. 
Cream soups, 31. 
Cream toast, 40. 
Creamed oysters on toast, 30. 
Creme de menthe, 59. 
Cucumber, 34, 87. 
Curagao, 59. 
Currant jelly, 37. 
Currants, 36, 90. 

dried, 92. 



Custard pie, 42, 85. 
Custards, 44, 45. 

Dairy products, 31, 32, 33, 77, 

78, 79. 
Dandelion greens, 87. 

cooked, 34. 
Dates, dried, 37, 92. 
Desserts, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 

48, 49, 50, 84, 85. 
Diet, regulation of, 15. 
Digestibility, 6. 
Distilled liquors, 58, 59. 
Doughnuts, 47, 84. 
Drop cake, 84. 
Duck, breast, 71. 

giblets, 71. 

meat, 71. 

" Edible portion," 1. 
Educators, 39. 
Eels, salt-water, 73. 
Egg crackers, 83. 
Eggnog, 55. 
Egg plant, 87. 
Egg sandwich, 39, 97. 
Egg souffle, 48. 
Eggs, 33, 77. 

boiled, 33, 77. 
Entire wheat flour, 81. 
Equivalents, table of, 24. 
European malt liquors, 61. 
European wines, 60. 
Export beer, 61. 

Farina, 81. 

cooked, 40. 
Fats, 1, 2. 
Figs, dried, 37, 93. 

fresh, 90. 

stewed, 37, 93. 
Filberts, 53, 95. 



INDEX 



105 



Fish, cooked, 29. 

fresh, 73, 74, 75. 

preserved and canned, 75, 76. 
Floating island, 48. 
Flounder, 73. 
Flour, 79, 80, 81. 
Food requirements in health, 
13. 

with mental work, 13. 

with muscular work, 11. 
Food stuff, classification of, 1. 
Food values, method of calcu- 
lating, 5, 19. 
Foods, cooking of, 16. 

uses of, in body, 3. 
Force, 40. 

French dressing, 51. 
French red wine, 60. 
French white wine, 60. 
Frosted cake, 42, 84. 
Fruit, canned, 93, 94. 

dried, 37, 92, 93. 

fresh, 36, 90, 91, 92. 

stewed, 37. 
Fruit cake, 42, 84. 

Gelatin, 79. 
Gin, 58. 

Gingerbread, 42, 84. 
Ginger snaps, 48, 84. 
Gluten bread, 38, 82. 
Goose, breast, smoked, 72. 

giblets, 71. 

gizzard, 71. 

liver, 71. 

meat, 71. 
Gooseberries, 36. 
Graham bread, 38, 82. 
Graham crackers, 39, 83. 
Graham flour, 81. 
Grapefruit, 36. 
Grapenuts, 40. 
8 



Grapes, 36, 90. 

Green goose, giblets, 71. 

meat, 71. 
Green peas, canned, 89. 
Green turtle soup, canned, 31, 

97. 
Guinea hen, giblets, 71. 

meat, 71. 

Haddock, 74. 

cooked, 29. 

smoked, 75. 
Hake, 74. 
Halibut, cooked, 29. 

smoked, 75. 

steaks, 74. 
Ham, boiled, smoked, 28, 69. 

cooked, luncheon, 69. 

fresh, 68. 

fried, smoked, 28, 69. 

smoked, 69. 
Ham salad, 97. 
Ham sandwich, 39. 
Hash, 26, 97. 
Hens' eggs. See Eggs. 
Herring, 74. 

smoked, 75. 
Hickory nuts, 95. 
H-O, boiled, 41. 
Hollandaise sauce, 52. 
Hominy, 80. 

cooked, 41, 80. 
Honey, 53, 85. 
Horse-radish, 89. 
Huckleberries, 36, 91. 

Ice cream, 48. 
Indian-meal mush, 41. 
Indian-meal pudding, 45, 85. 
Isinglass, 79. 

Jellies, 37, 93. 

Julienne soup, canned, 31, 96. 



106 



INDEX 



Koumiss, 32, 78. 
Kiimmel, 59. 

Ladyfingers, 49, 84. 
Lager beer, bottled, 61. 

draft, 61. 
Lamb, 27, 66, 67. 

breast, 66. 

chops, broiled, 27, 67. 

forequarter, 67. 

fresh, 66, 67. 

hindquarter, 67. 

leg, 66. 

roast, 27, 67. 

loin, 66. 

neck, 66. 

shoulder, 67. 

side, 67. 

tongue, spiced and cooked, 
67. 
Lard, refined, 49. 
Lemon juice, 91. 
Lemon pie, 42, 85. 
Lemonade, 55, 56. 

egg, 55. 

with white of egg, 55. 
Lemons, 36, 91. 
Lentils, dried, 87. 
Lettuce, 87. 
Lichi nuts, 95. 
Light beer, 61. 
Lima beans, 86. 

canned, 89. 

cooked, 34. 

dried, 86. 
Liqueurs, 59. 
Lobster, 30, 76. 

canned, 77. 

Macaroni, 81. 

baked with cheese, 41. 
cooked, 41, 81. 



Macaroons, 49, 84. 
Mackerel, 74. 

cooked, 29. 

salt, 75. 

Spanish, 29, 75. 
Madeira wine, 60. 
Malaga wine, 60. 
Malt liquors, 61. 
Malted milk, 56. 
Maple sirup, 53, 86. 
Maple sugar, 53, 86. 
Marmalade, orange, 37, 93. 
Marsala wine, 60. 
Mayonnaise dressing, 52. 
Meals, 79, 80, 81. 
Meat stew, 31, 96. 
Meats, 26. 
Mellin's food, 56. 
Milk, 33, 79. 
Milk gruels, 40. 
Mincemeat, 97. 
Mince pie, 43, 85. 
Mineral matter, 1, 2. 
Miscellaneous sweets, 53. 
Mock- turtle soup, canned, 31, 

96. 
Molasses, cane, 85. 
Molasses cookies, 49, 84. 
Moselle and Saar wine, 60. 
Mulligatawny soup, canned, 

31, 96. 
Munich heavy beer, 61. 
Mushrooms, 35, 87. 

broiled on toast, 35. 
Muskellunge, 74. 
Muskmelon, 91. 
Mussels in shell, 76. 
Mutton, 28, 67, 68. 

boiled, lean, 28. 

chop, lean, 28. 

chuck, 67. 
lean, 67. 



INDEX 



107 



Mutton, flank, 67. 
forequarter, 67. 
heart, 68. 
hindquarter, 68. 
kidneys, 68. 
leg, 67. 

roast, 28, 68. 
liver, 68. 
loin, 67. 
neck, 67. 
shoulder, 67. 
side, 68. 

Nectarines, 91. 

Nonalcoholic beverages, 54, 55, 

56. 
Noodles, 81. 
Nuts, 53, 54, 94, 95. 

Oatmeal, 80. 

boiled, 41, 80. 
Oatmeal crackers, 39, 83. 
Oatmeal gruel, 41, 80. 
Oatmeal water, 80. 
Okra, 87. 

canned, 89. 
Oleomargarine, 79. 
Olive oil, 52. 
Olives, green, 52, 89. 

ripe, 89. 
Omelet, 33. 
Onions, cooked, 35, 87. 

fresh, 87. 
Orange ice, 49. 
Orange marmalade, 37, 93. 
Oranges, 36, 91. 
Overfeeding, 14. 
Oxtail soup, canned, 31, 97. 
Oyster crackers, 39, 83. 
Oyster stew, 30. 
Oysters, canned, 77. 

in shell, 30, 76. 



Parsnips, 87. 

cooked, 35. 
Pastry, 42, 84, 85. 
Pea soup, canned, 31, 97. 

cream of, 31, 97. 
Peaches, 36, 91. 

canned, 93. 
Peanut butter, 95. 
Peanuts, 53, 95. 
Pears, 36, 91. 

canned, 93. 

dried, 93. 
Peas, dried, 87. 

green, 35, 87. 

canned, 89. 

cooked, 35. 

Pecans, 54, 95. 

Perch, white, 74. 

yellow, 74. 
Persimmons, 91. 
Pheasant giblets, 71. 

meat, 71. 
Pickerel, 74. 
Pickles, cucumber, 89. 

mixed, 90. 

spiced, 90. 
Pies, 42, 43, 85. 
Pigeon giblets, 71. 

meat, 71. 
Pigs' feet, 68. 

pickled, 69. 
Pigs' tongues, pickled, 69. 
Pike, gray, 74. 
Pilot bread, 39, 83. 
Pilsen export beer, 61. 
Pineapples, 36, 92. 

canned, 94. 
Pistachios, 54, 95. 
Plums, 36, 92. 
Pomegranates, 92. 
Pompano, 74. 
Pop corn, 80. 



108 



INDEX 



Porgy, 74. 
Pork, 28, 68, 69, 70. 
chops, 68. 

cooked, 28. 
chuck ribs and shoulder, 68. 
fat, salt, 69. 
feet, 68. 
middle cuts, 68. 
roast, 28. 
sausage, 28. 
side, 68. 
shoulder, 68. 
steak, cooked, 69. 
tenderloin, 68. 
Port wine, 59, 60. 
Porter, 61. 

Potato soup, cream of, 31. 
Potatoes, sweet, 88. 
boiled, 35, 88. 
white, 87. 
baked, 35. 
boiled, 35, 87. 
chips, 35, 87. 
creamed, 35. 

mashed and creamed, 35, 
88. 
Poultry, fresh, 70, 71, 72. 
meat, preserved, 72, 73. 
Preserves, 72, 73, 93, 94. 
Pretzels, 39, 83. 
Protein, 1, 12. 
Prune sauce, 37, 94. 
Prune souffle, 49. 
Prunes, 92. 

dried, 37, 93. 
Puddings, 43, 85. 
Puffed rice, 41. 
Pumpkins, 88. 
canned, 89. 

Quail giblets, 72. 
meat, 72. 



Radishes, 88. 
Raisins, 37, 93. 
Raspberries, 36, 92. 

dried, 93. 
Raspberry juice, 92. 
Red grouper, 74. 
Red snapper, 74. 
Refuse, 1. 
Rhein wine, 60. 
Rhubarb, 88. 

stewed, 37. 
Rice, 80. 

boiled, 41, 80. 

flaked, 80. 
Rice custard, 44, 85. 
Rice flour, 80. 
Rolled oats, 80. 
Rolls, 38, 82. 

French, 38, 82. 

Vienna, 38, 82. 
Rum, 59. 

Rye bread, 38, 82. 
Rye flour, 80. 
Rye meal, 80. 

Salmon, 74. 

California, 74. 

canned, 75. 

cooked, 29. 

landlocked, 74. 
Saltines, 39, 83. 
Salts, 1. 
Sandwiches, 39. 
Sardines, canned, 29, 76. 
Sauces, 50, 51, 52. 
Sauerkraut, 88. 
Sausage, 69, 70. 

Aries, 69. 

banquet, 69. 

Bologna, 69. 

farmer, 69. 

Frankfort, 69. 



INDEX 



109 



Sausage, Holsteiner, 69. 

Lyons, pure ham, 69. 

pork, 69. 

Salmi, 70. 

Wienerwurst, 70. 
Scalloped oysters, 30. 
Scallops, 76. 

fried, 30. 
Scraped beef, 26. 
Shad, 74. 

roe, 75. 
Sheepshead, 75. 
Shellfish, 29, 76, 77. 

canned, 77. 
Sherry, 59, 60. 
Shredded wheat, 41, 81. 
Shrimp, canned, 77. 
Skimmed milk, 33, 79. 
Smelt, 75. 

cooked, 29. 
Snow pudding, 45. 
Soda biscuit, 38, 82. 
Soda crackers, 39, 83. 
Soft custard, 45. 
Soups; 30, 96. 

canned, 97. 
Spaghetti, 81. 

baked, with tomatoes, 42. 
Spanish cream, 50. 
Spanish mackerel, 75. 

broiled, 29. 
Spinach, 88. 

cooked, 35, 88. 
Sponge cake, 42, 84. 
Squab giblets, 72. 

meat, 72. 
Squash, 88. 

canned, 89. 

cooked, 35. 
Squash pie, 43, 85. 
Steak, porterhouse, 63. 

round, 27, 63. 



Steak, sirloin, 63. 

tenderloin, 27, 63. 
Strawberries, 36, 92. 

canned, 94. 
Sturgeon, 75. 
Succotash, canned, 89. 
Sugar, 53, 85, 86. 

brown, 85. 

cube, 53. 

domino, 53. 

granulated, 53, 85. 

maple, 53, 86. 

powdered, 53, 86. 
Sugar cookies, 49, 50, 84. 
Sweet wines, 59, 60. 
Sweetbreads, 27. 

Tallow, 79. 
Tapioca, 85. 

and apples, 46, 85. 
Tapioca pudding, 46, 85. 
Tea, 54. 
Terrapin, 76. 
Toasted bread, 38, 82. 
Tokay wine, 60. 
Tomato catsup, 51, 89. 
Tomato preserve, 94. 
Tomato soup, canned, 31, 97. 

cream of, 31. 
Tomatoes, 35, 88. 

canned, 35, 89. 
Tomcod, 75. 
Tongue, canned, 27, 65. 
Tripe, pickled, 65. 
Trout, brook, 75. 

cooked, 29. 

salmon, 75. 
Turbot, 75. 
Turkey, 72. 

dark meat, 72. 
cooked, 72. 

giblets, 72. 



110 



INDEX 



Turkey, gizzard, 72. 

heart, 72. 

light meat, 72. 
cooked, 72. 

liver, 72. 

potted, 73. 

roast, 28. 

sandwich, canned, 73. 

young, 72. 
Turnips, 88. 

cooked, 35. 
Turtle, green, 76. 

Underfeeding, 14. 
Uneeda biscuit, 39. 

Veal, 28, 65, 66. 

breast, 65. 

chuck, 65. 

cutlet, 28. 

flank, 66. 

forequarter, 66. 

heart, 66. 

hindquarter, 66. 

kidneys, 66. 

leg, 66. 

liver, 66. 

loin, 66. 

lungs, 66. 

rib, 66. 

roast, 28. 

rump, 66. 

shank, 66. 

shoulder and flank, 66. 
Vegetable soup, canned, 31, 97. 
Vegetables, 34, 35, 86, 87, 88, 
89. 



Vegetables, canned, 88, 89. 

cooked, 34, 35. 
Vermicelli, 81. 

boiled, 42. 

Wafers, 84. 

Walnuts, 54, 95. 

Water, 13. 

Water crackers, 83. 

Watermelon, 36, 92. 

Weakfish, 75. 

Weights and measures, table 

of, 25. 
Weissbeer, 61. 
Wheat, cracked and crushed, 

81. 
flaked, 81. 
Wheat bread, 38, 82. 
Wheat flour, 81. 
Wheat gems, 81. 

boiled, 42. 
Wheat glutens, 81. 
Wheat preparations, 81. 
Whey, 33, 79. 
Whipped cream, 32. 
Whiskey, 59. 
White bread, 38, 83. 
Whitefish, 75. 
Whole-wheat bread, 38, 83. 
Wine sauce, 52. 
Wines, 59, 60. 

Yeast, compressed, 95. 

Zephyrs, 39. 
Zwieback, 38, 83. 



(ID 






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:f OENTiSTRY 
TY OF CALIFORNIA 




Date Due 


MAR 2 4 


1931 






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6 1933 
















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DEC 27 I 



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P 9 n 1 



OCT 3 






£*?7 



392205 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY